Selamat Datang Di Blog Ini

Watch out if you hackers I watching you!!!! Im just a newbie, but try me first and you will know

shitt if you hackers

shitt if you hackers
my dream is come true

Sabtu, 14 Februari 2009

The Evolution of Linux

Recently I had a situation where a KVM was the cause of Xorg not being able to read the correct modes from my monitor. It took me a while to figure out what was going on, but in the process I discovered something about the most recent Xorg that is both exciting and disturbing at the same time.

The situation had me installing Fedora 10 on my desktop that had been running Ubuntu 8.10. Because the KVM switch was keeping Xorg from setting up 1200×1024 resolution, I thought I might just have to hand-tweak my xorg.conf in order to get it. Not a problem, I’ve done it hundreds of times.

Funny how things can quickly take a turn for the “huh?”.

I opened up a terminal window, su’d to root, changed to the /etc/X11 directory, and issued the ls command. What I saw gave me pause. There was no xorg.conf file. I had a machine up and running, in full 5 runlevel, with no X configuration file. How is that so? Well, it turns out that is where Xorg is heading (as of release 7.4). And I’m not sure I like it.

Don’t get me wrong, I understand the “why.” For large-scale adoption, Linux needs to be as simple to use as the competition. One way to make this so is to take the guess work out of setting up such things as video. And I think it’s safe to say we all know that configuring video has, in the past, been a nightmare on certain chipsets. And to that end I can fully understand why the developers would want to go this route. And if they can create a fool-proof system that will be able to successfully configure X Windows with zero user intervention, more power to them. But I think this is a sign of things to come, and that sign looks like a Merge with Linux and Windows.

How so? I’ll tell you. It used to be that every single system in Linux had a handy, user-editable configuration file (most often found in the /etc directory). If there was ever a problem you simply had to open up that file and make a few modifications. Some of these systems are evolving in such a way that the configuration files have either disappeared altogether or spread out over numerous files that are either hard to find or figure out.

Personally, I don’t want a Linux that obfuscates or does away with configuration files. It doesn’t make sense to me. I want my Linux flexible. Of course I understand that even in this “new-fangled” Xorg, if I am not happy with an xorg.conf-less set up I can generate one with the Xorg -configure :1 command and then edit it myself. But if this new setup is heralding a new era of Linux then I worry that, when something goes wrong, the only way to solve a problem will be the old fashion Microsoft way of re-installing. That just will not do. But my complaint is not the loudest voice in the choir. No, the loudest voice is the one crying to make Linux ever-easier. And that is certainly the voice that needs to be heard. But I don’t think the solution is to cut off us old-school users all together.

The answer is not to add another step to the installation process. In fact, the answer most likely lies in the end-users themselves. For those of us old-timers it might be time to allow Linux to evolve into something a bit easier for the masses to swallow. For the longest time we have barked and cried for “World Domination”. But just like when U2 “sold out” after the Joshua Tree album, those who have cried the loudest for domination do an about face when it seems Linux is on to something that could tip the scales.

I cry, “Why are you making this too simple?” at the same time new users are crying “Why is this so hard?”

Do you think Xorg running xorg.conf-less is a step in the right direction?

I think we can both have our cake and eat it too, but the old-schoolers are going to have to (and I borrow a phrase here) “eat our own dog food.”

As a Linux user who is pretty confident in most areas of the OS (sans development) I don’t have a problem with creating and editing an xorg.conf. So if Xorg wants to evolve in such a way that X Windows doesn’t require an xorg.conf file (but can use one if the user so desires), then us old-timers will enjoy taking the user-friendly release and rockin’ it old school.

And I am sure it’s only a matter of time before the latest version of Fedora is forked and a newer, less user friendly version will appear. At that point there will be a Linux for every skill level. And from that, world domination will ensue.

Rabu, 11 Februari 2009

Perintah pada DOS ( Disc Operating Systim)

ATTRIB Perintah eksternal. Untuk melihat/mengubah atribut file
CLS Perintah internal. Untuk menghapus layar monitor
COPY Perintah internal. Untuk mengkopi file
DEL Perintah internal. Untuk menghapus file
DIR Perintah internal. Untuk melihat daftar file/folder di folder/direktori tertentu
MD Perintah internal. Untuk membuat direktori/folder baru
RD Perintah internal. Untuk menghapus folder (folder kosong)
REN Perintah internal. Untuk mengubah nama file/folder
TYPE Perintah internal. Untuk melihat isi file
EDIT Perintah eksternal. Untuk mengedit file teks (interaktif)
FDISK Perintah eksternal. Untuk melihat/mengubah/membuat partisi harddisk
FORMAT Perintah eksternal. Untuk memformat disket/harddisk
MORE Untuk mencegah tampilan menggulung terus-menerus
SYS Eksternal apa internal ya? Yang jelas untuk membuat disket/harddisk jadi bootable

Perintah-perintah tingkat lanjut:

DEBUG Perintah eksternal. Untuk melihat/mengubah isi file dalam format heksadesimal
REG Perintah eksternal. Untuk melihat/mengubah/menghapus key/value registry
TASKKILL Perintah eksternal. Untuk menghentikan/membunuh proses yang sedang berlangsung
TASKLIST Perintah eksternal. Untuk melihat daftar proses yang sedang berlangsung

Perintah-perintah BATCH


Program-program Utilities
QuickBASIC, PASCAL, TURBO C (bahasa pemrograman, program untuk membuat program).
Partition Magic for DOS (program partisi yang lebih mudah digunakan dibandingkan FDISK>/p>


Perintah “DIR” berfungsi untuk melihat daftar file/folder yang berada di direktori atau folder tertentu. Sebenarnya perintah DIR mempunyai banyak sekali parameter perintah yang dapat kita gunakan untuk membatasi daftar file/folder yang kita inginkan. Di antaranya, parameter-parameter ini dapat kita gunakan untuk menentukan file, folder atau file dan folder yang ingin kita lihat di direktori/folder tertentu, kemudian menentukan apakah kita akan menampilkan file-file yang hidden atau tidak, kemudian mengurutkan berdasarkan nama, tanggal, ukuran, dan sebagainya. Untuk mengetahui daftar parameter dan cara penggunaannya, ketikkan “DIR /?” kemudian tekan Enter.

Melihat daftar file/folder dalam direktori/folder tertentu
DIR (tanpa parameter)

Melihat daftar file saja
DIR /a-d

Melihat daftar folder saja
DIR /ad

Melihat daftar file yang tersembunyi
DIR /a-dh

Melihat daftar folder yang tersembunyi
DIR /adh

Melihat daftar file/folder yang tersembunyi
DIR /ah


Untuk mengetahui daftar parameter untuk perintah “ATTRIB”, ketikkan “ATTRIB /?”.

Melihat attribut file/folder
Format umum: ATTRIB namafile
Contoh: ATTRIB readme.txt
Untuk melihat attribut dari beberapa file/folder, gunakan wildcards character (*) pada namafile.

Mengubah attribut file/folder
ATTRIB daftaratribut namafile
Daftar atribut yang valid: H, R, S
Gunakan tanda ‘-’ di depan kode attribut untuk menonaktifkan atribut tertentu, gunakan tanda ‘+’ untuk mengaktifkan atribut tertentu.

Contoh pemakaian:
Mengubah atribut file README.TXT menjadi hidden

Mengaktifkan atribut hidden sekaligus atribut system pada file README.TXT

Menonaktifkan attribut hidden, read-only dan system pada semua file dalam direktori aktif (current directory). Kombinasi atribut ini dapat digunakan untuk memunculkan kembali file-file yang ‘disembunyikan’, misalnya sebagai dampak infeksi virus ke komputer:
ATTRIB -h -r -s *.*

Security/Hacking Tools & Utilities

1. Nmap

I think everyone has heard of this one, recently evolved into the 4.x series.

Nmap (”Network Mapper”) is a free open source utility for network exploration or security auditing. It was designed to rapidly scan large networks, although it works fine against single hosts. Nmap uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network, what services (application name and version) those hosts are offering, what operating systems (and OS versions) they are running, what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use, and dozens of other characteristics. Nmap runs on most types of computers and both console and graphical versions are available. Nmap is free and open source.

Can be used by beginners (-sT) or by pros alike (–packet_trace). A very versatile tool, once you fully understand the results.

Get Nmap Here

2. Nessus Remote Security Scanner

Recently went closed source, but is still essentially free. Works with a client-server framework.

Nessus is the world’s most popular vulnerability scanner used in over 75,000 organizations world-wide. Many of the world’s largest organizations are realizing significant cost savings by using Nessus to audit business-critical enterprise devices and applications.

Get Nessus Here

3. John the Ripper

Yes, JTR 1.7 was recently released!

John the Ripper is a fast password cracker, currently available for many flavors of Unix (11 are officially supported, not counting different architectures), DOS, Win32, BeOS, and OpenVMS. Its primary purpose is to detect weak Unix passwords. Besides several crypt(3) password hash types most commonly found on various Unix flavors, supported out of the box are Kerberos AFS and Windows NT/2000/XP/2003 LM hashes, plus several more with contributed patches.

You can get JTR Here

4. Nikto

Nikto is an Open Source (GPL) web server scanner which performs comprehensive tests against web servers for multiple items, including over 3200 potentially dangerous files/CGIs, versions on over 625 servers, and version specific problems on over 230 servers. Scan items and plugins are frequently updated and can be automatically updated (if desired).

Nikto is a good CGI scanner, there are some other tools that go well with Nikto (focus on http fingerprinting or Google hacking/info gathering etc, another article for just those).

Get Nikto Here

6. p0f

P0f v2 is a versatile passive OS fingerprinting tool. P0f can identify the operating system on:

- machines that connect to your box (SYN mode),
- machines you connect to (SYN+ACK mode),
- machine you cannot connect to (RST+ mode),
- machines whose communications you can observe.

Basically it can fingerprint anything, just by listening, it doesn’t make ANY active connections to the target machine.

Get p0f Here

7. Wireshark (Formely Ethereal)

Wireshark is a GTK+-based network protocol analyzer, or sniffer, that lets you capture and interactively browse the contents of network frames. The goal of the project is to create a commercial-quality analyzer for Unix and to give Wireshark features that are missing from closed-source sniffers.

Works great on both Linux and Windows (with a GUI), easy to use and can reconstruct TCP/IP Streams! Will do a tutorial on Wireshark later.

Get Wireshark Here

8. Yersinia

Yersinia is a network tool designed to take advantage of some weakeness in different Layer 2 protocols. It pretends to be a solid framework for analyzing and testing the deployed networks and systems. Currently, the following network protocols are implemented: Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP), IEEE 802.1q, Inter-Switch Link Protocol (ISL), VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP).

The best Layer 2 kit there is.

Get Yersinia Here

9. Eraser

Eraser is an advanced security tool (for Windows), which allows you to completely remove sensitive data from your hard drive by overwriting it several times with carefully selected patterns. Works with Windows 95, 98, ME, NT, 2000, XP and DOS. Eraser is Free software and its source code is released under GNU General Public License.

An excellent tool for keeping your data really safe, if you’ve deleted it..make sure it’s really gone, you don’t want it hanging around to bite you in the ass.

Get Eraser Here.

10. PuTTY

PuTTY is a free implementation of Telnet and SSH for Win32 and Unix platforms, along with an xterm terminal emulator. A must have for any h4×0r wanting to telnet or SSH from Windows without having to use the crappy default MS command line clients.

Get PuTTY Here.

11. LCP

Main purpose of LCP program is user account passwords auditing and recovery in Windows NT/2000/XP/2003. Accounts information import, Passwords recovery, Brute force session distribution, Hashes computing.

A good free alternative to L0phtcrack.

LCP was briefly mentioned in our well read Rainbow Tables and RainbowCrack article.

Get LCP Here

12. Cain and Abel

My personal favourite for password cracking of any kind.

Cain & Abel is a password recovery tool for Microsoft Operating Systems. It allows easy recovery of various kind of passwords by sniffing the network, cracking encrypted passwords using Dictionary, Brute-Force and Cryptanalysis attacks, recording VoIP conversations, decoding scrambled passwords, revealing password boxes, uncovering cached passwords and analyzing routing protocols. The program does not exploit any software vulnerabilities or bugs that could not be fixed with little effort.

Get Cain and Abel Here

13. Kismet

Kismet is an 802.11 layer2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. Kismet will work with any wireless card which supports raw monitoring (rfmon) mode, and can sniff 802.11b, 802.11a, and 802.11g traffic.

A good wireless tool as long as your card supports rfmon (look for an orinocco gold).

Get Kismet Here

14. NetStumbler

Yes a decent wireless tool for Windows! Sadly not as powerful as it’s Linux counterparts, but it’s easy to use and has a nice interface, good for the basics of war-driving.

NetStumbler is a tool for Windows that allows you to detect Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) using 802.11b, 802.11a and 802.11g. It has many uses:

* Verify that your network is set up the way you intended.
* Find locations with poor coverage in your WLAN.
* Detect other networks that may be causing interference on your network.
* Detect unauthorized “rogue” access points in your workplace.
* Help aim directional antennas for long-haul WLAN links.
* Use it recreationally for WarDriving.

Get NetStumbler Here

15. hping

To finish off, something a little more advanced if you want to test your TCP/IP packet monkey skills.

hping is a command-line oriented TCP/IP packet assembler/analyzer. The interface is inspired to the ping unix command, but hping isn’t only able to send ICMP echo requests. It supports TCP, UDP, ICMP and RAW-IP protocols, has a traceroute mode, the ability to send files between a covered channel, and many other features.

Get hping Here